# ASCII Tables (astropy.io.ascii)¶

## Introduction¶

astropy.io.ascii provides methods for reading and writing a wide range of ASCII data table formats via built-in Extension Reader classes. The emphasis is on flexibility and ease of use, although readers can optionally use a less flexible C/Cython engine for reading and writing for improved performance.

The following shows a few of the ASCII formats that are available, while the section on Supported formats contains the full list.

The astropy.io.ascii package is built on a modular and extensible class structure with independent Base class elements so that new formats can be easily accommodated.

Note

It is also possible to use the functionality from astropy.io.ascii through a higher-level interface in the Data Tables package. See Unified file read/write interface for more details.

## Getting Started¶

The majority of commonly encountered ASCII tables can be easily read with the read() function. Assume you have a file named sources.dat with the following contents:

obsid redshift  X      Y     object
3102  0.32      4167  4085   Q1250+568-A
877   0.22      4378  3892   "Source 82"


This table can be read with the following:

>>> from astropy.io import ascii
>>> print(data)
obsid redshift  X    Y      object
----- -------- ---- ---- -----------
3102     0.32 4167 4085 Q1250+568-A
877     0.22 4378 3892   Source 82


The first argument to the read() function can be the name of a file, a string representation of a table, or a list of table lines. The return value (data in this case) is a Table object.

By default read() will try to guess the table format by trying all the supported formats. If this does not work (for unusually formatted tables) then one needs give astropy.io.ascii additional hints about the format, for example:

>>> lines = ['objID                   & osrcid            & xsrcid       ',
...          '----------------------- & ----------------- & -------------',
...          '              277955213 & S000.7044P00.7513 & XS04861B6_005',
...          '              889974380 & S002.9051P14.7003 & XS03957B7_004']
>>> data = ascii.read(lines, data_start=2, delimiter='&')
>>> print(data)
objID         osrcid          xsrcid
--------- ----------------- -------------
277955213 S000.7044P00.7513 XS04861B6_005
889974380 S002.9051P14.7003 XS03957B7_004


If the format of a file is known (e.g. it is a fixed width table or an IPAC table), then it is more efficient and reliable to provide a value for the format argument from one of the values in the supported formats. For example:

>>> data = ascii.read(lines, format='fixed_width_two_line', delimiter='&')


For simpler formats such as CSV, read() will automatically try reading with the Cython/C parsing engine, which is significantly faster than the ordinary Python implementation (described in Fast ASCII I/O). If the fast engine fails, read() will fall back on the Python reader by default. The argument fast_reader can be specified to control this behavior. For example, to disable the fast engine:

>>> data = ascii.read(lines, format='csv', fast_reader=False)


Note

Reading a table which contains non-ASCII (unicode) characters is only supported in Python 3 or greater. If you have Python 2.x and need this functionality, consider using a newer version of Python.

### Writing Tables¶

The write() function provides a way to write a data table as a formatted ASCII table. For example the following writes a table as a simple space-delimited file:

>>> import numpy as np
>>> from astropy.table import Table, Column, MaskedColumn
>>> x = np.array([1, 2, 3])
>>> y = x ** 2
>>> data = Table([x, y], names=['x', 'y'])
>>> ascii.write(data, 'values.dat')


The values.dat file will then contain:

x y
1 1
2 4
3 9


Most of the input Reader formats supported by astropy.io.ascii for reading are also supported for writing. This provides a great deal of flexibility in the format for writing. The example below writes the data as a LaTeX table, using the option to send the output to sys.stdout instead of a file:

>>> import sys
>>> ascii.write(data, sys.stdout, format='latex')
\begin{table}
\begin{tabular}{cc}
x & y \\
1 & 1 \\
2 & 4 \\
3 & 9 \\
\end{tabular}
\end{table}


There is also a faster Cython engine for writing simple formats, which is enabled by default for these formats (see Fast ASCII I/O). To disable this engine, use the parameter fast_writer:

>>> ascii.write(data, 'values.csv', format='csv', fast_writer=False)


Finally, one can write data in the ECSV table format which allows preserving table meta-data such as column data types and units. In this way a data table (including one with masked entries) can be stored and read back as ASCII with no loss of information.

>>> t = Table(masked=True)
>>> t['x'] = MaskedColumn([1.0, 2.0], unit='m', dtype='float32')
>>> t['y'] = MaskedColumn([False, True], dtype='bool')

>>> from astropy.extern.six.moves import StringIO
>>> fh = StringIO()
>>> t.write(fh, format='ascii.ecsv')
>>> table_string = fh.getvalue()
>>> print(table_string)
# %ECSV 0.9
# ---
# datatype:
# - {name: x, unit: m, datatype: float32}
# - {name: y, datatype: bool}
x y
1.0 False
"" True

>>> Table.read(table_string, format='ascii')
x      y
m
float32  bool
------- -----
1.0 False
--  True


Note

For most supported formats one can write a masked table and then read it back without losing information about the masked table entries. This is accomplished by using a blank string entry to indicate a masked (missing) value. See the Bad or missing values section for more information.

## Supported formats¶

A full list of the supported format values and corresponding format types for ASCII tables is given below. The Write column indicates which formats support write functionality, and the Fast column indicates which formats are compatible with the fast Cython/C engine for reading and writing.

Format Write Fast Description
aastex Yes   AASTex: AASTeX deluxetable used for AAS journals
basic Yes Yes Basic: Basic table with custom delimiters
cds     Cds: CDS format table
commented_header Yes Yes CommentedHeader: Column names in a commented line
csv Yes Yes Csv: Basic table with comma-separated values
daophot     Daophot: IRAF DAOphot format table
ecsv Yes   Ecsv: Enhanced CSV format
fixed_width Yes   FixedWidth: Fixed width
fixed_width_no_header Yes   FixedWidthNoHeader: Fixed width with no header
fixed_width_two_line Yes   FixedWidthTwoLine: Fixed width with second header line
html Yes   HTML: HTML format table
ipac Yes   Ipac: IPAC format table
latex Yes   Latex: LaTeX table
no_header Yes Yes NoHeader: Basic table with no headers
rdb Yes Yes Rdb: Tab-separated with a type definition header line
rst Yes   RST: reStructuredText simple format table
sextractor     SExtractor: SExtractor format table
tab Yes Yes Tab: Basic table with tab-separated values

## Using astropy.io.ascii¶

The details of using astropy.io.ascii are provided in the following sections:

## Reference/API¶

### astropy.io.ascii Package¶

An extensible ASCII table reader and writer.

#### Functions¶

 convert_numpy(numpy_type) Return a tuple containing a function which converts a list into a numpy array and the type produced by the converter function. get_read_trace() Return a traceback of the attempted read formats for the last call to read where guessing was enabled. get_reader([Reader, Inputter, Outputter]) Initialize a table reader allowing for common customizations. get_writer([Writer, fast_writer]) Initialize a table writer allowing for common customizations. read(table[, guess]) Read the input table and return the table. set_guess(guess) Set the default value of the guess parameter for read() write(table[, output, format, Writer, ...]) Write the input table to filename.

#### Classes¶

 AASTex(**kwargs) Write and read AASTeX tables. AllType Subclass of all other data types. BaseData() Base table data reader. BaseHeader() Base table header reader BaseInputter Get the lines from the table input and return a list of lines. BaseOutputter Output table as a dict of column objects keyed on column name. BaseReader() Class providing methods to read and write an ASCII table using the specified header, data, inputter, and outputter instances. BaseSplitter Base splitter that uses python’s split method to do the work. Basic() Read a character-delimited table with a single header line at the top followed by data lines to the end of the table. BasicData() Basic table Data Reader BasicHeader() Basic table Header Reader Cds([readme]) Read a CDS format table. Column(name) Table column. CommentedHeader() Read a file where the column names are given in a line that begins with the header comment character. ContinuationLinesInputter Inputter where lines ending in continuation_char are joined with the subsequent line. Csv() Read a CSV (comma-separated-values) file. Daophot() Read a DAOphot file. DefaultSplitter Default class to split strings into columns using python csv. Ecsv() Read a file which conforms to the ECSV (Enhanced Character Separated Values) format. FastBasic([default_kwargs]) This class is intended to handle the same format addressed by the ordinary Basic writer, but it acts as a wrapper for underlying C code and is therefore much faster. FastCommentedHeader(**kwargs) A faster version of the CommentedHeader reader, which looks for column names in a commented line. FastCsv(**kwargs) A faster version of the ordinary Csv writer that uses the optimized C parsing engine. FastNoHeader(**kwargs) This class uses the fast C engine to read tables with no header line. FastRdb(**kwargs) A faster version of the Rdb reader. FastTab(**kwargs) A faster version of the ordinary Tab reader that uses the optimized C parsing engine. FixedWidth([col_starts, col_ends, ...]) Read or write a fixed width table with a single header line that defines column names and positions. FixedWidthData() Base table data reader. FixedWidthHeader() Fixed width table header reader. FixedWidthNoHeader([col_starts, col_ends, ...]) Read or write a fixed width table which has no header line. FixedWidthSplitter Split line based on fixed start and end positions for each col in self.cols. FixedWidthTwoLine([position_line, ...]) Read or write a fixed width table which has two header lines. FloatType Describes floating-point data. HTML([htmldict]) Read and write HTML tables. InconsistentTableError Indicates that an input table is inconsistent in some way. IntType Describes integer data. Ipac([definition, DBMS]) Read or write an IPAC format table. Latex([ignore_latex_commands, latexdict, ...]) Write and read LaTeX tables. NoHeader() Read a table with no header line. NoType Superclass for StrType and NumType classes. NumType Indicates that a column consists of numerical data. ParameterError Indicates that a reader cannot handle a passed parameter. RST() Read or write a reStructuredText simple format table. Rdb() Read a tab-separated file with an extra line after the column definition line. SExtractor() Read a SExtractor file. StrType Indicates that a column consists of text data. Tab() Read a tab-separated file. TableOutputter Output the table as an astropy.table.Table object. WhitespaceSplitter